J W Griswold introduces the Tintype photographic process in the USA. A development from the Ambrotype, wet collodion emulsion is coated on a sheet of black enamelled tinplate. The process is also known as the Ferrotype. When later improved as a dry plate process incorporated into special cameras with a developing and fixing compartment, with a complete processing cycle of less than a minute, it becomes popular for instant open-air portrait photography at seaside resorts.
First edition of British newspaper The Daily Telegraph.
Dr J M Taupenot reports his development of a dry collodion photographic plate.
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) announces the principle of tri-chromatic colour photography.
Collotype and carbon-print photographic technique is introduced by Alphonse Louis Poitevin.
Englishman Roger Fenton (1819-1869) takes over 350 glass-plate negatives of the Crimean War, including the first ever photographs of soldiers in hand-to-hand combat.
Penny-a-copy stamp duty on newspapers is abolished in Britain.
German emigré Ottmar Mergenthaler builds a prototype Linotype type composing machine in the US. Depressing keys places moulds of those character into a line, against which a molten lead alloy ('hot metal') is injected to form a line of type
Englishman Thomas Skaife is arrested when using a pistol-shaped camera—the first ever of this design—to photograph Queen Victoria.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung newspaper is first published.
Edouard-Léon Scott de Martinville (Léon Scott) is granted French patent number 19,457 for his 'Phonautograph' cylinder recorder, which records lateral movements of a vibrating stylus via a membrane on the lampblacked surface of paper wrapped around a rotating cylinder. The device goes into production for several years and is sold for use in laboratory measurement and analysis of sounds. There is no means of playing back recordings. [0026b]
British patents are granted to Professor J T Way for a mercury arc lamp, which is demonstrated in 1860.
Work starts on laying a transatlantic telegraph cable, using HMS Agamemnon and USS Niagara steamships to carry the 3,000 miles of cable. After the cable snaps twice, the attempt is deferred until the following year.
Second attempt to lay a transatlantic telegraph cable is eventually successful, after three cable breakages.
First telegraph message by undersea cable is sent between Trinity Bay, Newfoundland and Valentia, Ireland. The project's supervising engineer, Charles Bright, is knighted for his work; the engineer on HMS Agamemnon is William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin). The rate of transmission is about four words a minute.
Queen Victoria in England and President James Buchanan in the USA exchange telegraph messages via the new transatlantic cable.
Already weakening signals over the new transatlantic telegraph cable cease altogether. The cable is not replaced until 1866.
Agency to collect and distribute foreign news is set up in London by Julius Reuter.
James Ambrose Cutting develops a technique for lithographic printing of images onto paper from photographic negatives.